In 1972, the former king of Bhutan, Jigme Sineye Wangchuck, Proposed the idea of GNH (Gross National Happiness).

“GNH is more important than GDP,” he said. It sounds crazy to propose such an ideology during the era of rapid economic development.

Under the rapid development of consumerism, we may easily associate happiness to consuming, spending money or owning various products or materials.

Ironically, there are many social problems emerged behind the illusion of the utopia of consumerism. High level of pollution, wide disparity between the poor and the rich, high level of unemployment rate, social instability, growing suicide rate… are significantly affecting our lives.

It seems that the idea of GNH, which was proposed by a little king from such a small country, has given us an important inspiration that nurturing our inner needs is far more vital than fulfilling our wants.


1972年,前任不丹國王吉格梅.辛格.旺楚克(Jigme Sineye Wangchuck) 提出國民幸福總值( Gross National Happiness, GNH) 。

他指出:「GNH is far more important than GDP (Gross Domestic Product).」

在70年代提經濟發展急促的時代提出這樣的一個理念,無疑是一個「瘋狂」的想法。這個「瘋狂」的想法下,這個山區小國卻另闢蹊徑,默默追求他們認為可以真正反映國民生活指標數十年。

今天回看不丹前國王的這個理念,卻是超越現代人思考模式的真知卓見。

在消費主義掛帥、以GDP作為單位的社會之下,我們毫無疑問地將物質等同於幸福快樂。在今天GDP屢創新高的時代、物質豐盛的時代,伴隨的卻是環境污染、貧富懸殊、失業問題、社會不穩、自殺率攀升 ··· 數之不盡的問題。

在今天,經歷了一次又一次的金融海嘯的全球化世界,盲目追求GDP的社會發展方向似乎沒有為人類增加任何幸福。在經濟泡沫爆破,人們進退失據,陷入迷茫掙紮之中的時候,遠在喜瑪拉雅山腳下的小國的治國理念似乎給了我們一個重要的啟示:在追求GDP的同時,究竟為我們帶來什麼?

或許我們應該回到最根本的問題:拋開那些無謂的數字遊戲,我們人生究竟在追求什麼?


* GNH 當然不是單純的追求快樂、幸福感那麼空範,其背後當然有更深入的指標和具體內容,以後有機會將會簡單介紹。